With the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, federal and state courts and federal adjudicatory agencies suspended most trials and hearings. Faced with the requirement to fulfill their basic mission, many resumed partial operations using computer-based video conferencing,especially for preliminary legal and procedural matters. As time passed, the use of that videoconferencing extended to bench trials in courts and to adjudicatory hearings and proceedings such as settlement meetings, mediations, arbitrations, and status conferences in federal agencies. As of this writing, there have also been a small number of remote or virtual jury trials in state and federal courts.

The Administrative Conference of the United States (ACUS) initiated a project to study how federal adjudicatory agencies are using remote appearances and virtual hearings with the intent to propose recommendations for the future. The Center for Legal & Court Technology (CLCT) has prepared this report in response.

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A Study Conducted on Behalf of and With the Support of The Administrative Conference of the United States.

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