William & Mary Business Law Review


How successful are the SEC's attempts to regulate dynamic risk in financial markets? Using mutual fund disclosure data from two financial shocks--the Puerto Rican debt crisis and COVID-19--this Article finds evidence that SEC open-ended regulations, like the obligation to disclose changing market conditions, are largely successful in capturing dynamic, future risk. Funds engage in widespread and, often, detailed disclosures for new risks--although these disclosures vary widely in specificity. But not all funds disclose new risks. This creates perverse incentives for funds to opt out of disclosure or downplay threats with boilerplate language when new risks are emerging. This Article recommends several SEC interventions to improve dynamic risk disclosures including empirically monitoring disclosures, issuing guidance when problematic variation is observed, and enforcing disclosure standards.