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Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Select Orations of Cicero, with English notes. Trans. by Charles Anthon. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1836.

Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 B.C.E. – 43 B.C.E.) is considered one of Rome’s finest orators and one of the establishing members of the Roman Republic that turned into the Roman Empire. A member of the Second Triumvirate, he often spoke in Senate and held many government positions. Cicero is reportedly the first legal scholar to use the phrase “just war,” and to some degree develop a theory of just war. In his orations, he frequently spoke out about war and violence. His first oration against Cataline is a rebuke of planned rebellion and massacre slated to occur in Rome just days later.

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War Law Philosophy and Perceptions