In this extensive discussion of the Civil War amendments, this article proposes to identify the functions of the state action limitation. Specific accommodation of those functions is discussed in a variety of contexts: freedom from brutality, voting, education, employment, housing, etc.
14 Stanford Law Review 3-58 (1961)
Van Alstyne, William W. and Karst, Kenneth L., "State Action" (1961). Faculty Publications. 767.